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In a market economy, the decisions about production, investment and distribution are guided primarily by the demand and supply forces. The factors determining the supply and demand are: the money supply, the real value of money, the output of goods and services and the income or other forms of value produced by private individuals, firms, government agencies, and organizations. Economic systems that are based on a free market are also called capitalism.

In a market economy, people are not interested in exchanging money or goods and services between themselves for the provision of public goods and services. This is referred to as barter. When individuals produce things and sell them to other people who need them, they are producing income for themselves. In a market economy, the value of what the producer produces determines his own value. This process of determining the market price of a good or service is known as the demand and supply function.

Individual entrepreneurs buy and sell goods and services to consumers. The buyer purchases these goods and services from the seller. There are two basic types of producers. One is a manufacturer that produces goods for a market. This type of entrepreneur sells to customers in the market. The other type of producer is a retailer, who either sells to individual customers or buys from a wholesaler who buys directly from the producer. Retailers must obtain raw materials and products in the market from their manufacturers.

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In a market economy, people sell goods and services in return for other products that they need, such as housing, transportation, food, clothing, tools, machinery, and equipment. Goods and services purchased with money are said to be in circulation. Goods and services in circulation include money, land, labor, buildings, inventory, consumer durables, and financial instruments.

Money is a standard of exchange. It is usually exchanged to purchase goods and services. Goods and services are not sold in return for money. It is more accurate to say that in a market economy, goods and services are sold for money and not for any other commodity except when they are produced by private individuals and companies. In a socialist system, money is used to purchase goods and services. If goods and services cannot be producing to sell for money, they are sold for commodities, which are a form of money but are not produced for the market exchange.

Real money is used to purchase goods and services. Real money is issued by banks and other private institutions. It is either issued by governments or by individuals and firms in the form of certificates. Governments usually issue form legal tender coins that are in the form of cash, which are commonly known as bills of exchange.

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